1916 oil painting of Esteban Rodriguez Miró, Governor of the Spanish American Provinces of Louisiana and Florida, by Andres Molinary. Learn more »
Serving from 1782 until 1791, Spanish governor Esteban Miró oversaw a period of relative economic prosperity. During his term, he encouraged colonists to be inoculated against smallpox and advocated crop diversification, especially after the royal tobacco monopoly stopped buying the crop in Louisiana. After a devastating fire nearly destroyed New Orleans in 1788, Miró oversaw the city’s efforts to rebuild. On orders from Spain, he also worked to discourage U.S. settlers from occupying the land they were awarded in the Treaty of Paris (1763).
Esteban Rodríguez Miró y Sabater was born in Catalonia, Spain, in 1744 to Francisco Miró and Marian de Miró y Sabater. Little is known about his early life or education, though his service in the Spanish military is documented. A cadet in 1760, he fought in the Portuguese campaign of 1762. From 1767 to 1773 he served in the First Battalion of the Fixed Infantry Regiment of the Crown of New Spain, before rising to the rank of adjutant major in the Lisbon Infantry Regiment, where he remained until 1777. In the fall of 1778 he was appointed lieutenant colonel of the Louisiana Regiment. The next year, he married Céleste Eléonore Elisabeth Macarty of New Orleans, deepening his ties to the region.
From 1780 to 1781, Miró served as aide-de-camp to then-governor Bernardo de Gálvez, raising troops in Havana for the Mobile campaign of 1780. Miró also helped organize the suppression of the Natchez Rebellion in 1781 and, later that year, was promoted to the rank of colonel and commander of the Louisiana Regiment. When Gálvez traveled to Cuba between 1782 and 1785, Miró served as interim governor leading to his appointment as governor in 1785. On May 10, 1788, he assumed the duties of intendant as well as governor.
During his term, the Spanish Crown ordered Miró to prevent U.S. settlers from occupying property. To do this, he conspired with American soldier and statesman James Wilkinson and others to try to detach land-- now part of Kentucky--from the United States in the hopes of building a separate Spanish nation. He also worked to prevent U.S. land companies from occupying parts of what is now Mississippi. After the Great Fire of 1788, his administration oversaw the construction of public buildings.
Miró relinquished his office to Baron de Carondelet in 1791. He was promoted to brigadier general in 1793 and fought in the war against the First French Republic (1793-1795). He died in the Pyrenees Mountains on June 4, 1795.Sources: Jack D. L. Holmes, "Introduction," to document one, Documentos ineditos para la historia de Luisiana, 1792-1810 (1963); Caroline M. Burson, The Stewardship of Don Esteban Miro, 1782-1792 (1940); Arthur P. Whitaker, "Miro, Esteban Rodriguez, 1744-1795," Dictionary of American Biography (1928-58).
Adapted from Paul E. Hoffman’s entry for the Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, a publication of the Louisiana Historical Association in cooperation with the Center for Louisiana Studies at the University of Louisiana, Lafayette. http://www.lahistory.org
Cite This Entry
Chicago Manual of Style
"Esteban Rodriguez Miro y Sabater." In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana, edited by David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010–. Article published August 4, 2011. http://knowla.org/entry/916/.
"Esteban Rodriguez Miro y Sabater." KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 4 Aug. 2011. Web. 19 Jun. 2013.
Would you like to learn more about this topic from books and other reading materials?
Cowan, Walter Grieves and Jack McGuire. Louisiana Governors: Rulers, Rascals, and Reformers. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008.